“Black Americans began to ask themselves an important question: Why remain within an organization that marginalizes my concerns and preaches against my well-being? Even in these churches, the spiritualized and theologized American Dream excluded them. For others, the prosperity gospel that gained great visibility during the late twentieth century also made a graphic and crude association between the gospel and economic gain…. If the church preached a gospel consistent with US empire building, could the church actually save anyone? If not, why be a part of it?

“For those raising such questions, theoretical alternatives offered by anticolonial thinkers such as Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) gained ground and offered a rationale for moving beyond theistic formulations of the social world and related strategies for negotiating it. Through this turn to revolutionary thought, the importance of the church in particular and theism in general was questioned, and other modes for securing life-meaning were advanced.”